What do we actually know about the biology of ageing and the relationship between ageing and age-related diseases? Is there a consensus on what the biology of ageing is, its research framework and guiding principles? Where do we stand in terms of clinical research and treatments for the main health conditions in older age? What advances in the next ten years could improve ageing and age-related conditions for all? What about funding? Is this field of research attractive for early-stage investors? Which social and economic benefits can be anticipated? Where to draw the ethical line?